Search Results

  • American plum borer

    The adult is a light grayish brown moth with reddish brown forewings marked by wavy black and brown vertical bands about two-thirds the distance from the base (A). The larva ranges in color from grayish green to grayish purple, with a yellow to brown head capsule, cervical shield and anal plate (B).

  • Apple (Lyonetia) leafminer

    The adult has narrow white forewings with extensive gray-black and brown markings apically; wing margins are fringed with long hairs (A). The larva is whitish and generally concealed within the leaf mine. The pupa is external, and hangs suspended in a "hammock" from the leaf underside (B).

  • Apple leaf (curling) midge

    The adult is a tiny dark brown fly (A), and the larva is a yellow-white maggot with a reddish tinge (B).

  • Apple maggot

    Adults are black flies with three (males) or four (females) white cross bands on the abdomen, a prominent white spot at the posterior end of the thorax, and the wings are marked with black bands in the shape of an "F" (A). The cream-colored eggs are laid singly under the skin of the fruit. The larva is a milky white, legless maggot without a distinct head but with a pointed front tip (B).

  • Apple pith moth

    Head of adult is covered with white scales; forewings are narrow, mostly black or dark brown with white marks and usually with an irregular faint, rusty yellow line in the middle, and with two prominent black scale tufts. When the wings are folded they appear to have three pairs of white spots (A). Young larva is yellowish with a dark brown head, but turns more reddish in color in the final instar (B).

  • Apple red bug

    Adult has head and thorax bright red in color with brown wings (A).

  • Apple rust mite

    The vermiform adult has two pairs of legs at the front of its body (A). Brownish yellow in color, they are invisible to the naked eye, requiring a minimum magnification of 15X to be observed.

  • Apple seed chalcid

    Adult is a small, dark wasp with a bright green head, thorax and abdomen with coppery or bronze metallic reflections, brownish yellow legs, clear hyaline wings, and a long ovipositor (A). The larva is white and grub-like with dark sclerotized mandibles, and tapered at the caudal end (B).

  • Apple sucker

    Adult resembles a miniature cicada, greenish yellow to yellow in color but sometimes containing reds or browns, with eyes pale green to reddish brown, and long slender antennae; wings are transparent and iridescent (A). The nymph is pale yellowish green with green eyes, body short and broad with a flattened appearance, and rounded posteriorly, with prominent wing pads (B, arrow).

  • Black cherry aphid

    Adults and nymphs are shiny black soft-bodied insects; adults may or may not have wings. Nymphs are smaller, but generally similar in appearance to the adults (A).

  • Black peach aphid

    These smooth-looking, pear-shaped insects have long antennae and a pair of cornicles extending from the posterior end of the body. Adults are shiny and black (A). Nymphs are reddish-brown.

  • Brown marmorated stink bug

    Stink bug adults have a broad, flattened, shield-shaped body and a narrow head. The brown marmorated stink bug is usually brown with whitish antennal segments and darker bands on the membranous, overlapping portion of the hind wings. Patches of coppery or bluish metallic-colored punctures occur on the head and pronotum (A). Nymphal stages of H. halys have white antennal segments and white bands on their tibia. Their bodies are reddish brown and have horn-like projections near the eyes.

  • Brown stink bug

    Stink bug adults have a broad, flattened, shield-shaped body and a narrow head. The brown stink bug is brown to grayish-brown and slightly speckled (A).

  • Buffalo treehopper

    The pale green adult exhibits a large thorax with two "horns" and a long posterior wedge-shaped body (A). The cream-colored eggs are laid in a groove on the tree bark, where they overwinter.

  • Cherry fruit flies

    Black cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis fausta (Osten Sacken) Cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulate (Loew) The adult cherry fruit fly is somewhat smaller than the house fly, with a yellowish brown head and legs, and white crossbands on the abdomen (A). The black cherry fruit fly is slightly larger and its abdomen is entirely black (B). The wings of both species are clear with characteristic markings; the bands on the black cherry fruit fly wings are darker and wider, with a characteristic "doughnut-hole" marking. Larvae of both species are cream-colored maggots with no legs or visible head; the posterior end is blunt, and the front end tapers to a point with 2 dark mouth hooks (C).

  • Cherry fruitworm

    The adult is a small, brownish gray moth with a median gray band on the forewings and a dark spot at the base of the hind wings (A). Although whitish gray with a black head when young, the larva eventually becomes pink tinted, with a brownish tan head (B). Larvae possess an anal comb.

  • Cherry leafminer

    The adult is a small, bronzy tan-colored moth, with a wavy darkish brown to black band at the outer third of the forewings (A). The larva is an annulated caterpillar that is transparent in the early instars and turns a more opaque greenish white when full grown (B).

  • Cigar casebearer

    Adult is dark gray with fringed wings. The small yellowish larva of the cigar casebearer has a black head and builds and hides in a cigar-shaped shelter (A, B, C) that it carries with it while feeding or attaches to leaves and branches of apple trees.

  • Click beetles

    The click beetle is dark-colored (A); its body is hard and elongated; it has a characteristic pair of spurs and sometimes colorful markings on its thorax. When set on its back, it can bend its body and suddenly straighten out, propelling itself into the air to right itself, and emitting a distinctive "click" in the process.

  • Climbing cutworms

    A large complex of similar species including: Darksided cutworm, Euxoa messoria (Harris); Mottled cutworm, Abagrotis alternate (Grote); Dingy cutworm, Feltia jaculifera (Guenée); Mottled cutworm, Abagrotis alternate (Grote); Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.); Variegated cutworm Peridroma saucia (Hübner), W-marked cutworm Spaelotis clandestine (Harris). Adults are dark brown or grayish colored moths. Larvae tend to be smooth caterpillars with few hairs, brown or black head capsules (sometimes with distinctive markings), and bodies a dull gray-brown background color with stripes, spots, or dark brown, black, yellow or white splotches (A, B).

  • Codling moth

    The adult's forewings are striped with fine brown-gray lines and a distinctive bronze to brown-black oval spot at the tip (A). Eggs are laid on the leaves or fruit. The pinkish larva has a black head and a brown thoracic shield (B).

  • Comstock mealybug

    Adult females and nymphs are generally similar in appearance, having an elongate-oval shape, no wings, a many-segmented body and well-developed legs (A). The legs and antennae are inconspicuous. Body color is reddish brown, but the overall appearance is white because it is covered with wax, particularly in the case of the adult female (B), which additionally has long body filaments (including a pair caudally that are 1/3 as long as the body). The adult male is very small, gnat-like, and transient, so is rarely seen.

  • Dock sawfly

    The adult is bluish black with red legs (A). The larva (B) is a smooth velvety green worm with white legs (3 pairs of true legs and 7 pairs of prolegs) and a dark head.

  • Dogwood borer

    The adult is bluish black with yellow bands and has clear wings (A), resembling a wasp. Larva is creamy white to pink with a sclerotized reddish head (B).

  • Dusky stink bug

    Stink bug adults have a broad, flattened, shield-shaped body and a narrow head. The dusky stink bug is dark brown, with sharp shoulder projections (A).

  • Eastern tent caterpillar

    The adult is reddish brown with two white, transverse-parallel bands (A). Masses of shiny black eggs are laid in a ring around twigs. Larvae have long silky hairs on their body and a yellow line on their back (B).

  • European apple sawfly

    The adult looks similar to a small, orange-brown wasp with the ventral side and legs orange in color (A). It has transparent wings with many veins. The egg, oval and translucent, is inserted into the receptacle of the flower. The larva is cream-colored with a black head (B) and seven pairs of prolegs, the last four of which are called "pseudopods".

  • European corn borer

    Adult is a pale yellowish brown moth with irregular darker bands running in wavy lines across wings; male is distinctly darker than the female (A). Larva is pale brown or pinkish gray with a black head and inconspicuously marked with small, round, brown spots (B).

  • European earwig

    The European earwig is dark brown with an elongated body, equipped with pincer-like forceps (A) at the rear of the abdomen. The short elytra do not entirely cover the abdomen.

  • European fruit lecanium (Brown apricot scale)

    The adult female scale is nearly hemispherical and shiny brown, with several ridges along the back (A, arrow). Nymphs (crawlers) are light colored.

  • European fruit scale

    The female is immobile and covered with a circular waxy shell that becomes dark gray over time and is elevated at the center (A). The adult male is brownish red with an elongated abdomen, long antennae and wings. The minuscule nymph (crawler) is bright yellow and has long antennae.

  • European red mite

    The adult female is dark red and has silky hairs on its back borne on raised whitish tubercules (A). The male is smaller, lighter in color, and has a pointed abdomen (B). The mites feed mainly on the undersurface of the leaves. Eggs are red and are laid principally on the underside of leaves. Overwintering eggs are darker in color, and are laid between mid-August and the beginning of October on spurs, in bark crevices (C) and in the fruit calyx.

  • Eyespotted bud moth

    Adult forewings are bluish gray with a central cream-colored band (A; puparium is on the left) and black spots. The chocolate brown larva has a black head and thoracic shield (B).

  • Fall webworm

    Adult is a white moth with dark spots on the wings, which may be less distinct in northern specimens (A). The pale yellow larva has a dark head and dark tubercles with clumps of hairs (B).

  • Flatheaded appletree borer

    The adult is a short-horned beetle, flattened above, with short antennae and large conspicuous eyes (A). The upper surface of the body is dark metallic brown with slightly patterned wing covers. Underneath the wing covers (as seen in flight), the body is a bright metallic blue. The beetle's undersurface is coppery bronze. The larva (B) is light yellow and has a characteristic enlargement of the thoracic segments (just behind the head), which gives this insect its common name.

  • Forbes scale

    Round or elongate gray scale with a raised reddish area in the center (A, B), which distinguishes it from the San Jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus).

  • Forest tent caterpillar

    Adults are reddish brown with two brown, transverse-parallel bands (A). Masses of shiny black eggs are laid in a ring around twigs. Larvae have long silky hairs on their body and a row of elongated spots along the back (B).

  • Fruittree leafroller

    The adult is red-brown with mottling (A). The translucent green caterpillar has a reddish to dark brown head and an amber to pale green thoracic shield edged with brown (B).

  • Green June beetle

    The adult is velvet green dorsally with yellow-orange margins on the elytra (A). Ventrally it is a shiny metallic green mixed with orangish yellow. The larva is a large, C-shaped grub that lives in the soil and is not found in the trees.

  • Green peach aphid

    These smooth-looking, pear-shaped insects have long antennae and a pair of cornicles extending from the posterior end of the body. Wingless adults and nymphs are yellowish green, with three darker green lines on the abdomen (A). Winged adults are similar in color, but with a dark head and thorax.

  • Green pug

    The adult is a grayish moth with mottled or scalloped dark striations toward the wing margins (A). The larva is a green inchworm with a dark head and a dark reddish brown dorsal mid-line present in later instars (B).

  • Green stink bug

    Stink bug adults have a broad, flattened, shield-shaped body and a narrow head. The green stink bug is uniformly grass-green (A).

  • Gypsy moth

    The adult male is brownish and marked with blackish zigzag lines (A). The adult female is whitish with brown transverse zigzag stripes (B) and does not fly. The masses of oval and yellow eggs are laid on the trunk of trees and covered with hair left by the female. The blackish caterpillar (C) has a yellow head, long hairs, and bears tubercles on its back (four blue followed by six red).

  • Hawthorn dark bug

    The young adult is black with red wing markings (A), which disappear a few days after it metamorphoses into an adult.

  • Humped green fruitworm

    A. pyramidoides: Adult's forewings are gray and marked with light and dark areas for 2/3 of their length; the outer 1/3 is a lighter gray. The larva, which has a pronounced rear hump, is apple green, often with a milky overcast, and marked with broken white dorsal lines and a yellow and white band along each side (A).

  • Japanese beetle

    Adults are metallic green or greenish bronze in color, with reddish wing covers and several white spots near the tip of the abdomen and along the sides (A). Larvae are larger, C-shaped grubs that live in the soil and are not found on the trees.

  • Leaf weevils

    Leaf weevils are green or brown curculios with a metallic appearance (A). Their antennae are borne on the snout.

  • Lesser appleworm

    The adult is a small gray moth with distinct small orange bands or patches on the wings; some blue is also evident in newly emerged specimens (A). The larva is pinkish white with a dark head and an anal comb (B).

  • Lesser peachtree borer

    Adult is a clear-winged, metallic-blue moth that has two or more yellow bands across the abdomen, giving it a wasp-like appearance (A). Larva is white or cream-colored and hairless, with legs and a yellowish brown to dark brown head (B).

  • Mineola moth (Destructive pruneworm)

    Adult is a bluish gray moth that assumes a wedge shape when at rest. It has a transverse broad white stripe bordered by a smaller reddish brown stripe in the middle of the forewings; a smaller set of similar bands occur near the posterior edge (A). The larva has a brown head, with a body that is dark grayish brown dorsally and reddish brown ventrally, and marked with many short spines (B).

  • Mullein plant bug

    The adult is grayish green with black spots on the legs (A). The nymph (B) resembles an apple aphid or a white apple leafhopper, and is solitary, very mobile, and lacks cornicles.

  • Obliquebanded leafroller

    Adult wings are beige, tinged with red. Forewings are crossed with oblique brown bands (A). The female is larger than the male. The green eggs are laid in masses on the upper surface of leaves (B). The larva is yellowish green to olive green; its head and thoracic shield vary from tan to brown or blackish (C).

  • Oriental fruit moth

    The adult is a small moth with dark gray mottled wings that lighten somewhat at the outer edges (A). The larva is dirty white to pinkish with a reddish brown head and an anal comb (B).

  • Oystershell scale

    The adult female remains immobile under a small brown scale in the shape of an oyster shell (A) attached to the bark of branches. The white and oval eggs (B) are laid inside the scale and crawlers emerge in the spring during the petal fall stage of apple.

  • Pale apple leafroller

    The adult is elongated and dull gray (A). The larva is creamy white with an amber head, which turns black in the penultimate instar (B).

  • Peach bark beetle

    Adult's body is brown with many punctures, from which arise yellowish hairs (A). The larva is a small, legless grub.

  • Peachtree borer

    Adult is a clear-winged, metallic-blue moth that has one broad orange (female) or two or more yellow (male) bands across the abdomen (A); both sexes have more amber sheen on wings than lesser peachtree borer adults. Larva is white or cream-colored and hairless, with legs and a yellowish brown to dark brown head (B).

  • Pear midge

    The adult resembles a very small mosquito or gnat; the body is brown and the wings transparent with simple veins. The larva is a white maggot with no legs or visible head; the posterior end is blunt, and the front end tapers to a point (A).

  • Pear plant bug (Green apple bug)

    The adult pear plant bug is brownish yellow with two dark bands on the thorax (A) and the extremities of its anterior wings are yellowish in color.

  • Pear psylla

    Adults (A) resemble very small cicadas and can be reddish brown (overwintered generation) or tan to light brown (summer forms). Smaller, wingless nymphs are yellow with red eyes, flat and oval in shape, and develop within a clear honeydew drop (B). Larger "hard shell" nymphs are darker, with black areas interspersed with green or brown coloration (C); these forms have noticeable wing pads and are free-living.

  • Pear rust mite

    The overwintering stage is a light brown, wedge-shaped adult, which cannot be seen without a 15X hand lens (A). The summer forms are nearly white in color, and even smaller than the overwintered adults.

  • Pear slug (Pear sawfly)

    The adult looks similar to a small, black-bodied wasp with the ventral side and legs yellow in color. The larva is small, fleshy, dark green to orange, slug-like, and slime-covered, with the front part of the body enlarged (A). As the pear slug grows in size, it becomes somewhat lighter in color, until it is nearly orange-yellow when full grown (B).

  • Pear thrips

    Adult is slender and brown, with short antennae and a swelling behind the head; the wings are long and narrow, with fringes of long hairs (A). Young pear thrips are small and white with red eyes.

  • Pearleaf blister mite

    The adults are very small and cannot be seen without a 15X hand lens; the body is white and elongate oval in shape, like a tiny sausage (A).

  • Periodical cicada

    Adults are wedge-shaped, nearly black, with red eyes and red-orange wing veins. The clear wings are held tent-like over the body (A). Mature nymphs resemble small crayfish, and are sometimes seen clinging to vertical tree surfaces with their grasping front legs just before adult emergence.

  • Pistol casebearer

    Adult is dark gray with fringed wings. The pistol casebearer appears similar to a cigar casebearer: a small, yellowish larva with a black head that builds and hides in a shelter. However, the pistol casebearer’s case is curled at the end, resembling a pistol handle (A). Both casebearers carry their case while feeding or attach to leaves and branches of apple trees.

  • Plum curculio

    The adult is mottled grayish black and brown (A). Its head is prolonged into a large but short snout that bears antennae. Each elytron has a series of humps with the 2nd and 3rd pairs separated by a clear transverse band. The white elliptical eggs are deposited under the skin of the fruit in a crescent-shaped slit. The whitish larva, with no functional legs, has a C-shaped body, an elliptical head and a brown thoracic shield (B).

  • Plum rust mite (Peach silver mite*)

    Adult is minute and wormlike, with two pairs of legs, and pale yellow to brownish yellow in color (A). The nymph is pale yellowish white and closely resembles the adult.

  • Potato leafhopper

    Adults are yellowish green with short antennae, translucent wings, prominent leg spines and a long wedge-shaped body (A). Usually found actively moving on the leaf surface, they quickly run to the leaf underside when disturbed. Nymphs (A) are wingless and very mobile, generally moving in a lateral fashion. They overwinter in the Gulf Coast states; adults are carried into the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast states on weather fronts each year.

  • Prionus borers

    Broadnecked root borer, Prionus laticollis (Drury) Tilehorned prionus, Prionus imbricornis (L.) Adults are robust, broad, somewhat flattened blackish to reddish brown beetles with antennae roughly half the length of their bodies (A). Larvae are large, fleshy, elongate grubs, creamy white to yellowish in color, with 3 pairs of small legs, a swelling behind the small head capsule, and strong black mandibles (B).

  • Redbanded leafroller

    The adult's forewings are grayish brown with a subtle dark red and brown oblique band (A). The larva is pale green with a yellow or green head (B).

  • Redhumped caterpillar

    The adult is a grayish brown moth (A). The larva is yellow with a red head and is lined longitudinally with orangish, black, and white stripes. Several prominent black tubercles arise from the back, and there is a large reddish hump on top of the first abdominal segment (B).

  • Rose chafer

    Adults are slender, long-legged beetles, fawn-colored with a reddish-brown head and thorax, and undersurface of the body black (A). Larvae are larger, C-shaped grubs that live in the soil and are not found on the trees.

  • Rosy apple aphid

    Populations arise from the overwintered stem mothers (A), which are wingless and purplish in color, and form into colonies of rosy-purple nymphs with dark cornicles (B). They do not have the waxy, wool-like covering that the woolly apple aphid produces.

  • Roundheaded appletree borer

    Adult (A) has a hard, elongated body, with white and brown longitudinal stripes and long antennae. The larva is a fleshy, cream-colored legless grub with a dark brown head, blackish mandibles. The first thoracic segment broader than the rest of the body (B).

  • San Jose scale

    Adult males are minute, winged insects about 1 mm long and golden brown with a reddish tinge. Scales may be either disk-shaped (females) or oval (males), and are composed of concentric rings of gray-brown wax radiating from a tiny white knob (A). Nymphs (crawlers) are bright yellow and resemble spider mites (B).

  • Shothole borer

    The adult is stocky with a hard black body (A) and antennae, leg segments and tips of elytra reddish brown; its head is not visible from above. The larva is a legless grub, pinkish white, and slightly enlarged just behind the reddish head (B).

  • Skeletonizers

    Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer: Choreutidae Choreutis pariana (Clerck) Appleleaf skeletonizer: Pyralidae Psorosina hammondi (Riley) Birch skeletonizer: Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers The adults of the skeletonizers are brown and short, with transverse bands (A, B) on each forewing. The larvae are yellow to pale green with numerous hairy discs on each segment of the body (C).

  • Snowy tree cricket

    Adult somewhat resembles a field cricket, but is pale green in color and has a longer, more slender body and smaller head. Antennae are much longer than the body; males have stiff veins in their flat wings (A). Nymphs look similar to adults, but are more pale and slender, without fully developed wings.

  • Sparganothis fruitworm

    Adult is a vivid yellow moth with grayish magenta V-shaped marks on the forewings (which form an "X" when folded) and reddish orange lace-like markings (A). Larvae are pale green with yellowish-green head (B).

  • Speckled green fruitworm

    O. hibisci: The adult is grayish beige with two purplish gray spots on its wings and a hairy thorax (A). The eggs are laid on the upper surface of the leaves. The larva is yellowish green with numerous whitish flecks, and three longitudinal white stripes along the dorsum (B).

  • Spirea aphid

    The eggs are oval and shiny black. The adults and nymphs are olive-green with brown-black legs (A), antennae, and cornicles. They live in colonies.

  • Spotted tentiform leafminer

    The adult is a tiny beige moth with heavily fringed wings striped with golden brown and white bands (A). Eggs are laid individually on the undersurface of the leaves. The yellowish larva has a dark head and lives inside the leaf (B).

  • Spotted wing Drosophila

    Like other vinegar flies, SWD adults are small (2-3 mm) with rounded abdomens. Males can be identified by the distinct small, black dot present on each wing. Females are harder to identify, but this can be done by examining the ovipositor under magnification and looking for the distinct serration.

  • Spring cankerworm

    The adult male is gray and has winding lines on its forewings; the female has stumpy gray wings (A). The larva is pale green to dark brown with two yellow longitudinal bands on the sides (B). It moves in a looping inchworm fashion.

  • Tarnished plant bug

    The adult is brown and the extremities of its wings are translucent with a cream-colored scutellum (triangular plate) on its back (A). The nymph is pale green; from the 3rd nymphal stage, it has five black points on the back (B). Usually abandons fruit trees for alternate hosts soon after bloom.

  • Tufted apple bud moth

    Adult is an inconspicuous moth, varying from mottled gray at the wing base to brown at the wing tip, with a lighter colored margin along the wing's leading edge (A). Two or three groups of tufted scales can be seen on the top of the wings. Larva is initially yellowish with a black head, and later forms are light brown to grayish tan with a chestnut brown head, dark thoracic shield and dark stripe down the back of the body (B) (upper: normal larva, below: virus-infected).

  • Twospotted spider mite

    Adult and nymphal mites are yellowish to pale green with a dorsal pair of apparent dark "spots" (actually internal tissue contents visible through their cuticle) (A). Males are smaller than females and have a pointed abdomen. The female takes on an orange tinge in the fall (referred to as the "carmine phase") (B). They live in small colonies and aggregate in the crevices of the bark or in the ground cover to overwinter. Eggs, spherical and translucent, are laid individually on the underside of leaves (C).

  • Variegated leafroller

    P. flavedana: Adult is grayish magenta with dark brown bands on the middle and end of the forewing (A). Larvae are pale green with yellowish green heads (B).

  • Western flower thrips and flower thrips

    Western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] and Flower thrips [Frankliniella tritici (Fitch)] are indistinguishable without a microscope. Adults are slender and yellowish, with short antennae; the wings are long and narrow, and held over the abdomen (A). Larvae are smaller and wingless, but otherwise resemble adults.

  • White apple leafhopper

    Adults are creamy white with short antennae, translucent wings, and a long wedge-shaped body (A). Usually found on the underside of leaves, they jump and fly with great agility. Nymphs (B) are yellowish, wingless and very mobile; they generally move in a back-and-forth motion.

  • White peach scale

    Adult female is creamy-white to reddish orange, and covered by a round waxy scale that is grayish to brownish white (A). Adult males are tiny yellow 2-winged insects, and nymphs (crawlers) are oval and white to orange (B).

  • Widestriped green fruitworm

    L. antennata: The adult has bluish or steel gray wings marked with inconspicuous mottled patches. The light green larva is similar to O. hibisci, but white stripes and spots are more pronounced, and with a wide white band along each side (A).

  • Winter moth

    Adult male has grayish-brown wings (A); the female has remnants of wings and so cannot fly. This, in combination with the female's large body, makes the legs appear to be long, and gives her the superficial appearance of a spider (B). Early larva is olive-green with a black head; later forms are a brighter green, with white stripes along the back and sides (C).

  • Woolly apple aphid

    The colonies of reddish brown adults (A) and nymphs (B) produce waxy secretions, which resemble small tufts of wool or cotton batting (C). The aphids are without cornicles, possessing only abdominal pores.

The MSU IPM Program maintains this site as an access point to pest management information at MSU. The IPM Program is administered within the Department of Entomology, fueled by research from the AgBioResearch, delivered to citizens through MSU Extension, and proud to be a part of Project GREEEN.