Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)
Phylloxera are small, yellow, aphidlike insects that live on vine roots and leaves. The root form stunts growth of susceptible vines and can kill them. In the eastern United States, foliar damage is seen on wild grape, labrusca and some vinifera vineyards as raised galls on the undersides of leaves. The root form of this pest prefers vines growing in heavy clay soils. Labrusca grapes can tolerate phylloxera feeding on roots, particularly in well-watered vineyards.
Phylloxera damage the roots of vines by feeding on growing rootlets, which then swell and turn yellowish. The swellings are often hard to see on mature roots. Necrotic spots (dead areas) develop at the feeding sites.
This pest is effectively managed by using resistant or tolerant rootstocks.
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